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VOA慢速英語2019 科學家找到壓力與頭發變灰之間的關聯

時間:2020-01-29 23:23來源:互聯網 提供網友:nan   字體: [ ]
    (單詞翻譯:雙擊或拖選)

A new study provides scientific evidence to support the idea that stress can cause a person's hair to turn gray.

一項新研究提供了科學證據,這個證據提供了一種想法——壓力可以引發人頭發變灰。

A team from America's Harvard University said the new study is the first to show a clear link between stress and graying hair. The findings were recently published in the journal Nature.

來自美國哈佛大學的一個團隊稱,這項新研究是首個表明壓力和頭發變灰之間存在明顯關聯的研究。研究的發現成果最近發表在了《自然》期刊上。

Researchers say they discovered a chemical process that can change hair color during times of stress. The process is linked to the body's "fight-or-flight" reaction that can happen during dangerous situations.

研究人員表示他們發現了一個化學進程,這個進程可以在人處于壓力期間頭發會改變顏色。這個進程與人體“戰斗還是逃跑”的反應機制有關,這個反應機制會在危險的情況下發生。

Ya-Chieh Hsu is a professor of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology at Harvard. She said in a statement that the research team was in search of the first scientific confirmation1 of the commonly held belief that stress can cause gray hair. Everyone has an anecdote2 to share about how stress affects their body, particularly in their skin and hair - the only tissues we can see from the outside, Hsu said.

Ya-Chieh Hsu是哈佛干細胞與再生生物學的教授。她在一份聲明中表示,該研究團隊在尋找對一種常見想法的科學驗證,這個常見想法是——壓力會導致頭發變灰。關于壓力如何影響自己的身體,尤其是如何影響皮膚和頭發,每個人都會有點兒奇聞異事要說——皮膚和頭發是外在能看到的變化,這位教授這樣說道。

The team used experiments with mice to look at how stress affects stem cells in hair follicles. Most people have about 100,000 hair follicles on their head. The follicles are responsible for making melanocytes, the cells that give hair its color. As people age, melanocyte production is reduced. This causes a person's hair to begin turning gray naturally.

該團隊通過小鼠實驗來觀測壓力是如何影響頭發毛囊的干細胞的。大多數人頭部有近10萬個毛囊。毛囊是負責制造生黑色素細胞的,而生黑色素細胞可以影響頭發的顏色。隨著人年齡的增長,生黑色素細胞的生成量會減少。所以人的頭發會自然變灰。

At first, the researchers suspected that an immune attack caused by a stressful event might be targeting the melanocyte stem cells. That theory, however, turned out to be false. The mice lacking immune cells still showed signs of graying hair.

起初,這些研究人員懷疑壓力事件引發的免疫攻擊可能會攻擊黑素干細胞。不過,這個理論證明是錯的。缺少免疫細胞的小鼠有出現灰發的跡象。

The team also thought the hormone3 cortisol, which always increases in the body during times of stress, might be a likely cause. However, when researchers removed the gland4 that produces the cortisol hormones5, the hair of mice still turned gray.

該團隊還考慮了荷爾蒙皮質醇,荷爾蒙皮質醇會在人處于壓力時增加在體內的含量,這是一個可能的誘因。不過,當研究人員移除了產生皮質醇激素的腺體之后,小鼠的頭發變灰了。

The scientists then centered their experiments on the body's sympathetic nervous system. This is the body system that controls "fight-or-flight" reactions in dangerous situations.

然后,科學家將實驗聚焦到了身體的交感神經系統上。交感神經系統控制著人體自危險情況下的“戰斗還是逃跑”反應。

The sympathetic nervous system is made up of a collection of nerves that extend through the body, including the skin. When the mice were subjected to short-term pain or placed in stressful laboratory conditions, these nerves released a chemical called norepinephrine. The chemical then flowed through the stem cells up into the hair follicles -- where melanocytes are kept.

交感神經系統由遍布身體的神經組成,包括皮膚。當小鼠處于短期疼痛下或者處于實驗室的壓力環境中時,小鼠的神經會釋放一種叫做去甲腎上腺素的化學物質。然后,這種化學物質會流過干細胞,流至頭發的皮囊——生黑色素細胞就得以保留。

The researchers found that when the norepinephrine was released, all the melanocyte stem cells were highly activated6 and changed into pigment-producing cells. This overproduction process resulted in the early loss of color-producing cells.

這些科學家發現,當去甲腎上腺素釋放的時候,所有黑素干細胞都處于高度激活狀態,會變成產生色素的細胞。這個產生過量的過程會導致產生顏色細胞的過早流失。


點擊收聽單詞發音收聽單詞發音  

1 confirmation ZYMya     
n.證實,確認,批準
參考例句:
  • We are waiting for confirmation of the news.我們正在等待證實那個消息。
  • We need confirmation in writing before we can send your order out.給你們發送訂購的貨物之前,我們需要書面確認。
2 anecdote 7wRzd     
n.軼事,趣聞,短故事
參考例句:
  • He departed from the text to tell an anecdote.他偏離課文講起了一則軼事。
  • It had never been more than a family anecdote.那不過是個家庭趣談罷了。
3 hormone uyky3     
n.荷爾蒙,激素,內分泌
參考例句:
  • Hormone implants are used as growth boosters.激素植入物被用作生長輔助劑。
  • This hormone interacts closely with other hormones in the body.這種荷爾蒙與體內其他荷爾蒙緊密地相互作用。
4 gland qeGzu     
n.腺體,(機)密封壓蓋,填料蓋
參考例句:
  • This is a snake's poison gland.這就是蛇的毒腺。
  • Her mother has an underactive adrenal gland.她的母親腎上腺機能不全。
5 hormones hormones     
n. 荷爾蒙,激素 名詞hormone的復數形式
參考例句:
  • This hormone interacts closely with other hormones in the body. 這種荷爾蒙與體內其他荷爾蒙緊密地相互作用。
  • The adrenals produce a large per cent of a man's sex hormones. 腎上腺分泌人體的大部分性激素。
6 activated c3905c37f4127686d512a7665206852e     
adj. 激活的 動詞activate的過去式和過去分詞
參考例句:
  • The canister is filled with activated charcoal.蒸氣回收罐中充滿了活性炭。
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