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報告稱污染仍是對人類健康最大的環境威脅

時間:2020-01-29 23:36來源:互聯網 提供網友:nan   字體: [ ]
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A new international report says pollution remains1 the largest environment threat to human health.

The report, by the Global Alliance on Health and Pollution (GAHP), estimated that pollution was responsible for 15 percent of all deaths worldwide in 2017.

The organization said the number of premature2 deaths from pollution reached 8.3 million people worldwide that year. That is three times higher than the worldwide death totals from AIDS, tuberculosis3 and malaria4.

The GAHP is made up of more than 50 members, including United Nations agencies, world governments, environmental groups and educational organizations. It seeks to raise international attention about pollution issues and help governments create solutions to fight the problem.

The GAHP said that more than 90 percent of the pollution-related deaths occurred in developing countries. The report noted5 that such deaths remain a "neglected" issue, especially in low- and middle-income countries.

The writers of the report said international efforts have helped to reduce the effects of traditional pollution sources, such as poor sanitation6 and smoky cooking fires. But they noted that modern pollution from cities and industrial production is increasing.

The report suggests that a worldwide health crisis "is, in fact, still undercounted, still under-addressed [and] still under-resourced," GAHP's acting7 Director Rachael Kupka said.

The research follows up on a major report released in 2017 by the publication The Lancet. That report was created by an international group of university researchers, national health ministries8, nongovernmental organizations, the World Bank and the United Nations. The group looked at the causes of death and disability in four areas: air, water, job-related risks and lead exposure.

In the GAHP report, India and China had the largest total number of pollution-related deaths. They were followed by Nigeria, Indonesia and Pakistan. The United States was seventh.

"There are countries from almost every region of the world present in that top 10 list," Kupka said. "We really are all impacted. It doesn't matter where you are."

Pollution-related deaths per 100,000 people were highest in Chad, Central African Republic and North Korea. India still ranked high on the list, at number 10.

Research has shown that pollution raises the risk of heart disease, stroke, cancer, lung disease, and other conditions. The report said pollution adds more years of disability worldwide than smoking, alcohol and drug abuse, as well as wars and violence.

The GAHP noted that its latest estimates likely represent an undercount. For example, the group did not include major pollution sources such as pesticides9 and mercury.

Kupka says researchers will aim to center on those issues in the next pollution report in The Lancet, which is planned for 2021.

The good news, Kupka said, is that controls already exist to help reduce the harmful effects of pollution. She urged officials in problem countries to recognize and enforce emissions11 controls for vehicles and smoke sources. She said protective equipment for workers should also be provided, as it already is in many countries.

Words in This Story

premature – adj. happening too soon or before the usual time

neglect – v. to not give something enough care or attention

income – n. money earned through working, investing or producing goods

sanitation – n. a system for protecting people's health by removing dirt and waste

exposure – n. coming in contact with something

follow up – v. to continue or complete something started earlier

impact – v. to affect

emission10 – n. the act of releasing something


點擊收聽單詞發音收聽單詞發音  

1 remains 1kMzTy     
n.剩余物,殘留物;遺體,遺跡
參考例句:
  • He ate the remains of food hungrily.他狼吞虎咽地吃剩余的食物。
  • The remains of the meal were fed to the dog.殘羹剩飯喂狗了。
2 premature FPfxV     
adj.比預期時間早的;不成熟的,倉促的
參考例句:
  • It is yet premature to predict the possible outcome of the dialogue.預言這次對話可能有什么結果為時尚早。
  • The premature baby is doing well.那個早產的嬰兒很健康。
3 tuberculosis bprym     
n.結核病,肺結核
參考例句:
  • People used to go to special health spring to recover from tuberculosis.人們常去溫泉療養勝地治療肺結核。
  • Tuberculosis is a curable disease.肺結核是一種可治愈的病。
4 malaria B2xyb     
n.瘧疾
參考例句:
  • He had frequent attacks of malaria.他常患瘧疾。
  • Malaria is a kind of serious malady.瘧疾是一種嚴重的疾病。
5 noted 5n4zXc     
adj.著名的,知名的
參考例句:
  • The local hotel is noted for its good table.當地的那家酒店以餐食精美而著稱。
  • Jim is noted for arriving late for work.吉姆上班遲到出了名。
6 sanitation GYgxE     
n.公共衛生,環境衛生,衛生設備
參考例句:
  • The location is exceptionally poor,viewed from the sanitation point.從衛生角度來看,這個地段非常糟糕。
  • Many illnesses are the result,f inadequate sanitation.許多疾病都來源于不健全的衛生設施。
7 acting czRzoc     
n.演戲,行為,假裝;adj.代理的,臨時的,演出用的
參考例句:
  • Ignore her,she's just acting.別理她,她只是假裝的。
  • During the seventies,her acting career was in eclipse.在七十年代,她的表演生涯黯然失色。
8 ministries 80c65392682fb821af91521513be1259     
(政府的)部( ministry的名詞復數 ); 神職; 牧師職位; 神職任期
參考例句:
  • Local authorities must refer everything to the central ministries. 地方管理機構應請示中央主管部門。
  • The number of Ministries has been pared down by a third. 部委的數量已經減少了1/3。
9 pesticides abb0488ed6905584ea91347395a890e8     
n.殺蟲劑( pesticide的名詞復數 );除害藥物
參考例句:
  • vegetables grown without the use of pesticides 未用殺蟲劑種植的蔬菜
  • There is a lot of concern over the amount of herbicides and pesticides used in farming. 人們對農業上滅草劑和殺蟲劑的用量非常擔憂。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
10 emission vjnz4     
n.發出物,散發物;發出,散發
參考例句:
  • Rigorous measures will be taken to reduce the total pollutant emission.采取嚴格有力措施,降低污染物排放總量。
  • Finally,the way to effectively control particulate emission is pointed out.最后,指出有效降低顆粒排放的方向。
11 emissions 1a87f8769eb755734e056efecb5e2da9     
排放物( emission的名詞復數 ); 散發物(尤指氣體)
參考例句:
  • Most scientists accept that climate change is linked to carbon emissions. 大多數科學家都相信氣候變化與排放的含碳氣體有關。
  • Dangerous emissions radiate from plutonium. 危險的輻射物從钚放散出來。
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